The Role Relationships Play in Preparing Young People for the Workforce
March 06, 2017
Elizabeth Pufall Jones, Ph.D, Qualitative Research Scientist, Center for Promise
A mentor, a teacher, an advisor, a friend; a web of relationships to support you. New research says that webs of relationships provide unique support necessary to foster the success of the 5.6 million opportunity youth in the United States, 16-24 year-olds not working and not in school.
Previous research from the Center for Promise indicates that relationships provide the various supports needed for school engagement and educational outcomes, including for young people who have experienced high levels of adversity. Two of our latest reports, Relationships Come First and Turning Points, demonstrate that this is also true for their success in the workforce.
Further, our research indicates that a young person’s success does not hinge on the intervention of a superhero. Instead, building a web of support – the constellation of people who provide an array of supports – facilitates positive developmental outcomes for youth in education and life.
Why are career readiness programs important? What makes them successful? What do young people say about the relationships they formed in these programs? Watch the video to find out.
To understand the role that relationships can play in youth’s career pathway, we worked with a sub-set of Youth Opportunity Fund grantees that are implementing intensive career pathways programming:
Café Momentum in Dallas, Texas
Per Scholas in the Bronx, New York
Urban Alliance in Washington, DC,
Year Up in the Bay Area, Calif.
In Relationships Come First, we examined archival documents from the programs and conducted interviews with key players in each of the programs to see how they integrate relationships into their missions and work with the young people they serve.
For the Turning Points report, we conducted 12 group interviews with 74 youth from these four programs and follow-up individual interviews one month later with 17 youth. Here’s what we found:
Major Findings about Relationships
Relationships come first. In addition to the elements of traditional career development and workforce readiness – job skills, career management skills, and social and life skills that are important to navigating career pathways – we found that all four programs place relationship-building at the forefront of their model. These programs realize that high adversity settings can have deleterious effect on a young person’s trust as well as on the availability of positive supportive relationships, and thus place relationships at the forefront of their programming in an effort to have the greatest impact in the lives of their youth.
Webs of support are integral to the program design. Each program functions as a web of support; adults and peers with in the program play different roles and offer a variety of supports to young people through multiple strategies. Relationships at the program act as models so that young people can build relational capacity and competencies to meet their current needs and strengths and those in their future.
Complementing these findings, during our interviews with young people for Turning Points, the young people described the relationships they experienced at career pathways programs as scaffolding their positive development.
Moop's Depiction of Her Web with an Overlay of the Cores
Interviews provided an opportunity for young people to draw their own webs of support, two of which are included in the Turning Points report.
Relationships endure and extend beyond the program. Each program fosters webs of support for their participants beyond the structured intervention so that each graduate has a system of relationships in place to help them stay on a path to adult success. Further, each program offers alumni support so that relationships and webs endure beyond graduation.
Relationship-building approaches differ depending on who the program serves. While all of the programs see the importance of relationships, they all take a different approach to how relationships are developed and supported, given the needs and strengths of the youth in their program. For example, if the young people have a high level of distrust for adults, the program might place a greater emphasis on building trust with them. Or, if the young people come from contexts that lack resources the program might place a greater emphasis on a case management approach.
We also found, in Turning Points, that a young person's web of support is a dynamic system. Young people access different cores (or clusters of relationships that are usually concentrated around certain contexts) at different times according to the individual's changing needs and the degree to which a given core is responsive to those needs.
By investing in young people’s futures, career readiness programs are investing in our country’s future.
‘I got somebody to support me here’
The young people we interviewed for Turning Points all spoke about the importance of the relationships in the career pathways programs: “Ever since I got here they been embracing me, it feel like family,” said Artim, a 17-year-old male from Café Momentum.
And Molly, a 23-year-old female from Year Up Bay Area, spoke of both staff and peer support: “I just felt like I got somebody to support me here. [My adviser] she’s like all in my face, she wants to know everything about me, and stuff like that. Like she’s telling me she’s gonna support me. And also my classmates, like my [Learning Community], my LC is really big on supporting each other.”
Young people like Artim and Molly need people and places that invest in them. By investing in them, creating relationships, these programs are investing in their future, and our country’s future. A country where young people have the opportunity for employment that offers economic and employment stability is a hopeful country with a prosperous future.
The 5 Promises represent conditions children need to achieve adult success. The collective work of the Alliance involves keeping these promises to America’s youth. This article relates to the promises highlighted below:
These six platform areas are based on the collective experience and expertise of individuals at organizations engaged with young people across the country, the experience of young people themselves, and our own research. The platform areas are a statement of best practice – they are what has been demonstrated to work to improve graduation outcomes for young people:
Elizabeth Pufall Jones, Ph.D., is a Qualitative Research Scientist at the Center for Promise at Boston University’s School of Education. Her research focuses on the processes and contexts associated with a multicultural individual’s navigation and negotiation of the multiple cultural worlds in which they live.
Why does being suspended or expelled increase the odds that a student will drop out of school? A few months ago, my research team and I at the Center for Promise published a report about the impact exclusionary discipline policies have on students, which helped us answer this question.
A preponderance of research shows that suspensions and expulsions do little to change behavior and can push students out of school altogether. For instance, being suspended just one time in the ninth grade is related to an increased risk of dropping out. Suspension can increase the chance of leaving school prior to graduation from 16 percent to a 32 percent.